Are we safe to call this Spring?

Some of us are all ready for Spring…..

But the weather has had other ideas lately……

Perhaps the birds should hold back a while before they get on feathering their nests. Mind you, we have provided a few extra desirable residences for our birdlife to consider this year. You may remember us growing bottle gourds (Lagernaria sisceraria)  in the walled garden last summer. We thought they might make an interesting alternative to the usual boxes – we will see what the birds think!

On 6th March some of our volunteers  attended a study day offered by Share Museums East at Gainsborough House in Sudbury. The day was offered to volunteers working in museums in the Eastern region and was called ‘Gardener’s Delight.’

They thoroughly enjoyed it and made us feel envious when they told us about it! Here is a summary of their day.

“A short update on an amazing study day with fellow volunteers from all over the region, including English heritage, stately homes and museums, altogether about 30 of us!

We enjoyed a full day of interesting presentations from a history of Gainsborough House to Cedric Morris and how irises influenced his painting, to a talk from a horticulturist blogger who recently published a book on the Secret Gardens of East Anglia.

Following a wonderful lunch and leisurely stroll around the gardens which contains a 400 year old Mulberry Tree and a small collection of irises collected by Cedric Morris. We had free entry to Gainsborough House which housed paintings of himself and Morris also a small exhibition of Constable.

We returned to an inspiring talk from a Professor of history at UEA on the current biodiversity changes in orchards since 1600. An amazing speaker and enthusiastic landscape historian.

Altogether a great opportunity to share knowledge with fellow volunteer gardener’s and to meet like minded people.”

So who was Cedric Morris?

Before the Second World War, Morris was a well-known painter and breeder of irises, which he admired for their ‘elegance, pride and delicacy’. In 1940 he moved to Benton End in Suffolk, where he cultivated a garden inspired by Claude Monet’s at Giverny. He grew about 1,000 new iris seedlings every year.He ran the East Anglian Art School with his partner Arthur Lett-Haines for more than 40 years and was an avid gardener who bred irises to award-winning standard.

He raised his seedlings  by hand-pollination; sifting and assessing them for vigour and form and using his artist’s eye to produce painterly colours, including pioneering soft pinks and muted yellows. His painting Iris Seedlings is one of his best known.

Iris Seedlings 1943 Sir Cedric Morris, Bt 1889-1982 Purchased 1981 http://www.tate.org.uk/art/work/T03230

The Mulberry (Morus nigra), is a native of Oriental countries but has been grown in this country since the early part of the 16th century, for its fruit and as a food source for silkworms. It is of slow growth, eventually reaching 20 – 30ft, with spreading branches usually wider than the tree is high, as shown by this example. A wonderfully, rugged and picturesque tree, but not one for our smaller modern gardens perhaps.

Another oriental, growing in the Gainsborough garden, this is Hamamelis mollis or Chinese witch hazel, a lovely early flowering shrub discovered in 1879 by Charles Maries from the famous Veitch nursery on one of his plant hunting expeditions in the Far East. It is an exotic relative of the American Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) introduced in 1656, which became a popular medicinal plant due to the astringent action of the tannins it contains. It remains a well known herbal remedy, used for varicose veins, skin inflammation and for healing wounds and burns.

Back in the gardens at Cressing we have made the most of the few nice, fine days to get some planting done. In the tea garden we have been adding more hedging roses, Rosa ‘Wild Edric’, a strongly scented, strongly coloured rugosa type, bred by David Austin. In a few years it should make a cheerful welcome to visitors as they enter the site.

In the same area we have planted clumps of a very vigorous, tall grass. It is one we dug up to make way for the hedging roses and I have no idea of its name. But it is tall and sturdy, making a lovely sight in late autumn, into winter and we thought it would look good here with the moat as a backdrop.

Other jobs have included replanting the water lilies, with Pete drawing the short straw for the plunge this time!

Take a deep breath Pete…..

And go for it!

We are hoping to get a better water balance this year, with less murky green and a clearer view of the fish. More oxygenating plants, a higher density of surface covering plants and possibly a lower density of fish should help the situation.

The Friends Group had a very successful AGM on Sunday, despite the inclement weather. About 30 people braved the snow and came along to hear news of the a very busy year for the Friends and listen to a fascinating talk on Essex apples and orchards by Neil Reeve. He has collected all 34 varieties of Essex apple tree – amazing there were once so many varieties in this County when today you would be hard pressed to find that many in the whole of the UK!  Neil told us of his ambition to see more of these varieties, maybe the entire collection, growing in our Cressing Temple orchard. An exciting thought and something for the long term. We already grow the wonderful varieties D’Arcy Spice and Chelmsford Wonder, but how about adding Braintree Seedling, Maldon Wonder or even Eros! There is currently a Heritage Lottery Funded project run by Orchards East to support and stimulate interest in orchards and orchard fruit growing. In Essex alone there has been a loss of 75% of our traditional orchards over the past 30 years, more than any other Eastern County, so it would be a great achievement for us to do our bit to reverse that trend.

Today was the first day the ground seemed dry enough to get in and do some good spring clean up tasks. We were working in the Cullen garden and had a very satisfying morning snipping back, weeding, clearing debris and rearranging things.

Now we need a bit of sustained warmth to make it all grow. What was that? talk of more snow over Easter – never!

And if this warmer weather has made you all think about getting into your own gardens, our plants are out on the sales table to tempt you. Garden plants have gone up to £2.50 this year, with the herbs staying at £2.00. Both really good value and they are strong, healthy plants that will grow away quickly once planted. Members of the Friends Group will get 50p off every plant, so well worth the membership fee.

This weekend sees the start of our season of events at Cressing Temple with the Oakleigh Food and Home Fair. Some of our volunteers will be working in the gardens to talk to the visitors and others will be selling plants on the stall.

We’re off for another year!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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AGM

The 2018 AGM will take place on:

18th March

2pm

in the conference room

The short business meeting will be followed by a talk about apple orchards by Neil Reeve, from The East of England Apples and Orchards Project.

Please come along if you can. We have an exciting year ahead.

The AGM documents are as follows:

2017 minutes

AGM notice

Nomination – proxy form

Chairman’s report

 

 

Back to winter

My last post was entitled ‘lengthening days and signs of spring’! What a joke, I should take it all back after this week. With the start of March I would normally be thinking all systems go, with the job list mounting and that spring like feeling of wanting to get on with things. Instead of that, I have been cooped up at home most of the week, catching up with admin and looking out on a not at all spring like picture in my own garden.

Cressing has been closed to the public since Wednesday with the drive so deep no cars could get down without getting stuck, as Paula found out to her cost on Thursday!

So while I have been tucked up in the warm my thoughts went to all those poor plants, covered in snow and not being able to escape the freezing temperatures. How do they cope?

Freezing causes damage to plants as water inside their cells turns to ice and expands. But hardy plants, those that can survive below freezing temperatures, are capable of some clever cold hardening (I could do with a bit of that myself!). This mainly involves increasing the concentration of sugars in their cells, which lowers the temperature at which the fluid freezes, rather like anti-freeze does in our cars. The cell walls also become permeable, allowing excessive water based sap to be forced out of the cells into the spaces between, where it does less damage to the plant if it freezes. This can cause another problem for the plant – extreme dessication where the plant basically drys out. To deal with this there are special cells which secrete proteins into the spaces between cells to stop them freezing. All very clever stuff which enables many of our garden plants to endure, if not enjoy, these sub-zero temperatures.

As I haven’t been at Cressing while this big freeze has been going on I can’t show you pictures of what is undoubtedly a very pretty scene there. And the thaw is starting over this weekend so perhaps the picture will be very different next week. But we have had lots of wintry days since Christmas and the garden has looked rather lovely in the frost, especially when the sun was out.

I’m sure most of us are ready for an end to the wintry conditions but it is good to remember the garden can look beautiful in the cold, when it is pared back to the bare bones and its structure and symmetry are all the more obvious.  William Robinson tells us in his seminal book The English Flower Garden “Winter is not a time of death, but of happy strife for plants and men.”

Some of the stars of the winter garden are those with scented flowers, pumping out their perfume on warmer, still days to attract the few pollinators that might be about. One of these is the winter flowering honeysuckle, Lonicera purpusii, a dense twiggy bush with brown wood and creamy coloured flowers in the first three months of the year. The flowers appear back to back on the bare twigs and they emit a rich heavy perfume, especially pronounced on a calm day. We have one flowering now in the Cullen garden and it is well worth paying it a visit and breathing in the sweet scent.

The winter flowering plants are so vital for providing nectar to the brave insects that are beginning to emerge after their long winter hibernation. Our honey bees are certainly grateful of any flowering plants they can find at this time of of year and it is really important for us gardeners to not neglect this when we are choosing what to plant. This bee certainly seems to be appreciating the winter aconites (Eranthis hyemalis), a plant that becomes more abundant at Cressing every year and is certainly a delight to see.

The Friends hosted another very successful quiz evening recently, which kick started our fundraising towards the compost loo we are hoping to install at the community garden this year. The conference room was packed and the heat generated by all that brain activity resulted in a need to open the windows, despite the chilly temperature outside! Congratulations to Andy and his team of boffins who showed their expertise on subjects ranging from chocolate slogans to events of 2017 to spelling to TV soaps, to US presidents and flags of the world. Mind boggling stuff! For keen quizzers out there, the Cressing Temple Community Shed will be hosting another quiz on MAY 18TH AT 7.30 in the conference room.

Another date for your diaries is the Friends AGM, this year to be held on SUNDAY 18TH MARCH at 2PM in the conference room at Cressing Temple. After the business side of the meeting there will be a talk by Neil Reeve on traditional orchards, which promises to be very interesting. Neil is a member of The East of England Apples and Orchards Project and he was one of the experts identifying your apples at our Apple Day 2017. Please come along to support us if you can. There have been some significant achievements over the past year and some exciting news for 2018.

We will be starting our new season of plant sales very soon so it is time to plan your summer displays. This snow will soon be a distant memory and we have the anticipation and excitement of spring to look forward to. Keep warm and dream of summer!

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lengthening days and signs of spring

It may seem that we are still firmly in the grip of winter, still waking up in darkness, peering out onto a gloomy lifeless scene and making decisions about how many layers of clothing are needed or which waterproof to take. But look a little closer and you soon realise that some plants are feeling a little more optimistic and have decided it is time to have a tentative peek at the world.

Here are a few signs of spring, spotted at Cressing yesterday.

Usually the first to flower, the winter aconite (Eranthis hyemalis) is a cheery sight. Looking like choirboys with their ruff of leaves, these flowers have been known and loved in Britain since at least 1597 although they should be treated with caution like all members of the Ranunculaceae family because they are very poisonous. In 1822 a certain Mrs Gorst died after eating a tuber, having mistaken it for horseradish!

Next are the wonderful catkins, or lambs tails,  of the hazel (Corylus avellana), waiting for the wind to distribute its pollen to the tiny red female flower which is harder  to spot.

The hazel has been growing happily in Britain for the last 6000 years, having been one of the first species to recolonise our land after the last Ice Age. During that time it has been one of the most useful woody species we know, having two invaluable qualities. Poles can be split lengthways and then twisted and bent at sharp angles without breaking, making them the perfect material for weaving and use in all manner of construction from wattle and daub to fencing and hurdles and even for pegging down thatch. And it is not just ancient craftsmen that found a use for this versatile timber. More recently, Hazel screens have been used to reduce motorway noise, ‘mattresses’ of hazel have been used to fortify the banks of the river Ouse, and gardeners everywhere still use humble hazel rods for pea and bean sticks and walkers for walking sticks.

This time of year would not be complete without the mention of the much loved and well known snowdrop (Galanthus ssp).

Galanthus nivalis, or Candlemas bells, are what you might think of as an archetypal British wild flower. But all is not straightforward with the history of the snowdrop and it may not even be a native species. It grows wild on the continent in damp woods and meadows but is unknown in Scandinavia and colder Northern Europe, despite having leaf tips specially hardened to pierce frozen ground. But they were not recorded as growing wild in Britain until the 1770’s and they failed to generate much enthusiasm amongst early gardeners here. They are one of few naturalised species not to get a mention by either Shakespeare or Chaucer and it was known as the unromantic ‘bulbous violet’ until the name snowdrop appeared in 1633. Considering its near obsessional popularity amongst collectors today one wonders what our medieval forebears were missing.

Whilst things in the garden are still relatively quiet at Cressing there was more of a commotion at the Community Shed on Tuesday when it held a grand opening, attended by what seemed like hordes of people, making our large Shed seem suddenly rather cosy.

The grand unveiling was performed by two Councillors from Braintree District Council, assisted by Bob Adams, chairman of the Cressing Community Shed and was watched by a good crowd of hardy Shed enthusiasts.

Inside, many items were on display to give inspiration to budding shedders and show what can be done.

All the hard work of getting the shed smartened up, organised and ready for action was clear for everyone to see.

There was even a celebratory cake, soup, sandwiches and cups of tea to give much cheer to those who came along.

It has taken over a year to arrive at this official opening and we are delighted to have this community facility at Cressing, to complement our other volunteering opportunities. With very little money but a great idea and a few willing and determined volunteers it just goes to show what is possible and what can be achieved. If you would like to know more about the Shed or are thinking you might like to join, visit their Facebook page or come to Cressing Temple on a Tuesday or Thursday where there will be somebody to tell you more. You can also find out more about the whole idea of Mens’ sheds and how it came about at the Uk Mens’ Shed Association website. And our shed is not just for men so if you ladies out there have a hankering to bash in a nail, turn a bowl or make a planter for your garden why not come along?

It is always nice to be able to take our Cressing Temple gardens a bit further from home, and I had the opportunity to do this a couple of weekends ago when I gave a talk at the Nottingham Hardy Plant Society., called ‘Plants with a Purpose’. The invite came from my sister, a committee member for the Nottinghamshire Hardy Plant Group, who needed to fill a gap in their speaker programme (nobody much wants to come out in January!), which I duly accepted.

And what a lovely occasion it was, with a  friendly, interested audience who made me feel very welcome. My talk was called ‘Plants with a Purpose’ and I used the opportunity to introduce the walled garden and explain the many fascinating uses to which the plants have been put in the past. but I was surprised and delighted to find that one or two members had already visited Cressing and knew the garden. Let’s hope we see a few more of them this summer.

The Nottingham Hardy Plant Group has been going for an amazing 42 years and has a thriving membership of about 120 plant enthusiasts. The group meets for monthly talks in the winter and for regular visits to gardens in the summer. They are also lucky to be responsible for the care of a botanic garden at Wollaton Deer Park and Hall in Nottingham, a delightful and beautifully maintained  garden, 100 feet by 50 feet and surrounded by a 10 foot high brick wall. They grow plants from 50 different genera and they are all labelled meticulously.

The botanic garden is open on Sundays from 2-4pm from spring until autumn and would be well worth a visit as they sell their plants too! Take a look at the Notiingham Hardy Plant website for more information.

The Friends Group is now the proud owner of a 36L apple press, an Ebay bargain not to be missed.

If you remember, we won some money at last autumn’s Garden Soup for an apple press to turn some of next year’s wonderful apple harvest into Cressing Temple Apple juice. Well, now we have come a step closer to that goal. Strange to be thinking of harvesting apples when it is only January, but knowing how quickly time flies we will soon be heading towards our next Apple Day on 14th October. Put it in your diary and come along for a taste of the 2018 vintage.

Well, having started this blog with a comment on this morning’s gloomy weather, I have just spent a glorious afternoon in my garden, with the sun shining and birds singing as though Spring is here already. A day is a long time in gardening!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Quiz

Friday 23rd February 2018 at 7.30pm

The Friends are pleased to host a general knowledge quiz.

Please come along, everyone is welcome.

The Quiz will take place in the Cressing Temple Visitor Centre starting at 7.30pm.

Teams of 4-6 people, £5 per head.

Tea, coffee & biscuits provided, but please feel free to bring your own food and drink.

To book a table please contact Karen Perry:

karenthompstoneperry@ gmail.com.

Tel: 07917 850860

 

Happy Christmas

So here we are, almost at the end of another year and time for another volunteer Christmas party. This time last year we had nothing but the gazebo to shelter us from the drizzly December weather. Do you remember it?

So what luxury it was this year, to have warmth, light and power in the porta cabin, potting shed and shelter. And all thanks to the Big Lottery grant we were lucky enough to receive this year.

It felt like civilisation had arrived at the Community Garden and we made the most of it by cooking three soups, hotdogs and potatoes!

All this was enjoyed around the campfire whilst catching up with friends.

We know how to party, us gardeners!

To top it all off, some of us braved the icy cold floor of the community shed to make willow bird feeders. Here’s me trying to remember how I made it.

And here’s everybody trying to remember how I made it!

And a happy result.

Let’s hope the birds enjoy their Christmas dinners.

It was a lovely way to round off an enjoyable year of gardening at Cressing. A  huge thank you to all our volunteers who have worked so hard, been so cheerful and enthusiastic and added so much to the life and events of Cressing Temple this year. It has been a fantastic year and so much has been achieved. A real team effort.

Much had been going on in the gardens before we got to party time. This week we have endured some dank and gloomy weather but for our apple trees in the Jubilee orchard they have never had so much light! The hedgerow had become completely overgrown, blocking light to the trees for many years. As a consequence, some of them were leaning desperately to one side in search of light and were struggling to produce a decent crop of apples each year. We decided the time had come to do some radical cutting back and with the expert help of one of our Country Parks Rangers we lowered the hedge to a more manageable 6 foot.

What a difference it has made. The trees look a bit shocked but will soon get used to it and we are hoping it will make them grow stronger, more balanced and with better fruiting ability.

Encouraged by our success we continued the process of letting in more light by cutting back the hedgerow adjacent to the main road, which has also improved access to the public footpaths running across the Cressing Temple site. Howard was a dab hand with the long handled pruner as you can see.

While we had ranger help we took the opportunity to take down a couple of trees that were dying in the Walled Garden. This Elder (Sambucus nigra) has been looking increasingly sickly over successive years, possibly as a result of the honey fungus we have in the garden. We finally took the decision to fell it this autumn, to be replanted with another tree, grown against the wonderful South facing Tudor wall.

Chris carefully inspected the tree before taking it down, in case it might be a potential bat roost. For those of you with an interest in chiropterology you can read about bat roosts on the bat conservation society website. Although there were a few small holes in the dead wood of this tree, none were large enough or deep enough to provide a suitable roost.

Our new community shedders are keenly interested in any tree felling that happens on site. What to us is an old diseased piece of wood might for them become a beautifully turned fruit bowl. What better example of recycling could you get?

Before the weather turned all Christmassy – mild damp and dreary! – we enjoyed a brief but beautiful few days of snowy weather, which is hopeless for gardening but great for photos.

Despite the inevitable slide into winter we have found plenty to keep us busy and there have been many trips over to the bonfire site with apple tree prunings. It was on one of those trips that several fairy rings were spotted in Dove House field.

These strange growths are caused by the fungi Marasmius oreades, a common fungus found in grassland across the UK. The genus name Marasmius comes from the Greek word ‘marasmos’, meaning ‘drying out’ which alludes to their ability to completely dry out in hot sunny weather only to reappear when the rains return. This and other members of the genus Marasmius are sometimes referred to as ‘resurrection mushrooms’ for this very reason. They are also commonly known as ‘Scotch Bonnets’. The ring is produced because the mycelium of the young fungus spread out in all directions using the nutrients in the soil, leaving none in the middle, so a ring with nutrient poor soil in the middle occurs.

I often mention how much of our time is spent trying to outwit or outmanoeuvre our rabbit population at Cressing and the last few weeks have been no exception! With great dedication and diligence, in the miserable rain, this little yellow garden elf (aka Mary) constructed a beautiful and colourful barrier out of red stemmed dogwoods (Cornus alba ‘Sibirica’) to prevent the persistent digging and nibbling in the well house border. We are trying to beat their sneaky efforts without turning the whole site into a chicken wire fortress! These dogwood barriers look far more attractive.

What about these for a curious looking vegetable?

They are called Oca (Oxalis tuberosa), a South American tuber with a lemony taste that can be cooked like potatoes.  In warm climates Oca is a perennial herbaceous plant and can overwinter as underground stem tubers but in more temperate northern climates, it is frost sensitive and is grown as an annual. It is easy to grow and harvest, it can tolerate poor soil and would be ideal for a ‘no dig’ gardening system. This is the second year we have grown these unusual tubers and we can easily grow some more next year by saving a few of the biggest and best from this year’s crop to be planted out next spring. I thought I would go for  a bit of variety and serve these as part of our Christmas dinner this year.

For those of you who like something a little more traditional, have a very happy Christmas and enjoy your……

Have a peaceful, restful and warm Christmas. See you all in the New Year!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A smelly week

With the warmth and and fragrance of summer herbs and roses well behind us, this week has been filled with more autumnal aromas, and not all of them pleasant!

It was time to give our fishpond a thorough clean out, following a summer of very poor water quality. We knew there were fish in there somewhere, we just couldn’t see them!

Having used the pump to empty the water to as low a level as we dared without having to remove the fish, it was time to reach for the waders and roll up our sleeves. First problem, will I be able to see over the top of the waders!

Not the most flattering of outfits but let’s hope they are watertight.

And in I go.

At times like this it is hard to remember the delightful scents of summer or imagine the sparkling jewel like flowers of the water lilies. People often say to me how lucky I am to have a job like mine!

And this is what we dredged out.

 

With Carol’s help we managed to remove a proportion of the thick sludge that had accumulated over the years at the base of the pond. A large population of goldfish and an overhanging D’Arcy Spice apple tree results in the build up of a large amount of decaying organic matter which was contributing to the poor water quality. Our intention was not to remove all the sediment, which is full of insect life and nutrients providing food for the fish. We just wanted to restore a healthy balance for fish and plants alike, whilst also improving the appearance for our visitors. The smelly sludge was emptied into the moats so none of the insect life was lost. Now we just need to return the repotted water lillies, fill the pond up to its normal level and see if it has all made a difference. In the spring we intend to add some extra oxygenating plants, introduce some water snails and treat the pond regularly with a dose of barley straw extract to limit the growth of algae and maintain a healthy ecosystem with everything in equilibrium.

Pond cleaning was not the only smelly job we tackled this week. On Tuesday we all went home smelling of kippers after an all-day bonfire up at the fire site.

It was hard work as the waste pile had become very large over the summer but by the end of the day about a third of it had gone and there was a huge pile of wood ash which we can add to the compost heap in small amounts or dig into the vegetable garden. Wood ash has the benefit of raising the soil Ph, so is good for brassicas which benefit from an alkaline soil, and it has high levels of potassium which is good for promoting better fruiting.

I thought I might be in for another smelly experience this week when I visited the compost loo at Runwell allotments, an option we are considering for our community garden and community  Shed area. This time I was pleasantly surprised to find no unpleasant smells  and was rather impressed with the practical installation they have there, on a site with no mains services.

Lynda Payne, parish councillor for Runwell, kindly showed us their facility and explained how it all worked and how they had secured funding from the National Lottery.

They have had their loo for over two years and are delighted with it. No smell, no maintenance so far and what a difference it has made to all the allotmenteers who no longer have to cross their legs or dash home when nature calls!

It seems like a great option for us at Cressing if we can get the necessary permissions and raise the funds. At the moment the only option for community gardeners and Shedders who are caught short is to take the long trek on foot to the main public toilets or use the allotment taxi – Carol’s bike!

This week has seen the first frosts of the winter which is a lovely sight on those crops that can withstand it like this parsley (Petroselinum crispum).

On a bright, sunny morning with a blue sky and a slight mist hanging in the air it was a beautiful sight first thing in the morning up at the vegetable plot.

It is well worth leaving some plants standing through the winter months, especially if they have valuable seed heads like these sunflowers which the blue tits and great tits have been feasting on for their rich, energy giving oils.

The cold weather is also a good time to make sure there are plenty of places for the insects to hibernate over winter. An insect box like this is ideal, but also leaving piles of twigs and sticks in the corners of the garden and leaving some leaf litter under hedges will all provide valuable cover for wildlife facing the rigours of the colder weather.

Whilst we and many creatures feel like hiding away and keeping warm as the weather turns colder, there are some advantages to the gardener of the onset of the first frosts: and one of them is the sweetening of certain vegetables like parsnips and brussels sprouts.

Plants produce sugars through photosynthesis, which are usually stored in the plant as starches but in response to cold temperatures, some plants break down some of their energy stores into “free” sugars, such as glucose and fructose, and stash them in their cells to guard against frost damage. Sugar dissolved in a cell makes it less susceptible to freezing in the same way that salting roads reduces ice. Clever stuff. And we benefit because the vegetables taste sweeter.

Despite the gradual slide into winter it is still a good time to lift and divide perennials so long as the soil is still workable. Mary did a fantastic job in the Cullen garden on Thursday splitting and replanting hardy Geranium macrorrhizum and Osteospermum jucundum in the central island bed. These plants have proved to be very good ground cover, reliable and healthy and relatively untroubled by our resident population of rabbits! We are gradually getting a good idea of what plants are rabbit proof in our conditions. Peony, Hellebore, Catmint, Hydrangea, Bergenia, Agapanthus, Red hot poker and several grasses seem pretty resistant and we will go on looking for more. Ground cover is really useful where rabbits are concerned as they prefer uncovered, loose soil where it is easy for them to dig. We intend to make it as inconvenient for them as we can!

Thanks to Mike, we now have a lovely, efficient composting process going on and have been using the products to mulch our beds this week. Chopping or shredding the material as it is added to the pile is a great way to speed the whole thing up, in addition to it being a good workout and warm up at the start of a chilly day.